Sri Lanka at independence in 1948 was an oasis of stability, peace and security. It was a shining example of parliamentary democracy in the Third World. During the 1980s, however, violent ethnic conflict, emergency rule, the manipulation of the electoral process and the erosion of the welfare safety-net transformed Sri Lanka into a highly volatile locus of ethno-political conflict with severe human security deficit. The book explores the symbiotic relationship between traditional and human security in Sri Lanka in academic as well as in practical terms. It argues that human security discourse may bring about conceptual breakthrough on the security of the state which is essential to find a way out of the complex emergencies arising from the internal crisis of Sri Lanka.